LeetCode 211. Design Add and Search Words Data Structure

Description

https://leetcode.com/problems/design-add-and-search-words-data-structure/

Design a data structure that supports adding new words and finding if a string matches any previously added string.

Implement the WordDictionary class:

  • WordDictionary() Initializes the object.
  • void addWord(word) Adds word to the data structure, it can be matched later.
  • bool search(word) Returns true if there is any string in the data structure that matches word or false otherwise. word may contain dots '.' where dots can be matched with any letter.

Example:

Input
["WordDictionary","addWord","addWord","addWord","search","search","search","search"]
[[],["bad"],["dad"],["mad"],["pad"],["bad"],[".ad"],["b.."]]
Output

[null,null,null,null,false,true,true,true]

Explanation WordDictionary wordDictionary = new WordDictionary(); wordDictionary.addWord(“bad”); wordDictionary.addWord(“dad”); wordDictionary.addWord(“mad”); wordDictionary.search(“pad”); // return False wordDictionary.search(“bad”); // return True wordDictionary.search(“.ad”); // return True wordDictionary.search(“b..”); // return True

Constraints:

  • 1 <= word.length <= 500
  • word in addWord consists lower-case English letters.
  • word in search consist of  '.' or lower-case English letters.
  • At most 50000 calls will be made to addWord and search.

Explanation

Create a trie to search and store words. When the word contains ‘.’, search recursively to check if next character matches.

Python Solution

class TrieNode:    
    def __init__(self):
        self.children = {}
        self.is_word = False
            

class WordDictionary:

    def __init__(self):
        """
        Initialize your data structure here.
        """
        self.root = TrieNode()
        

    def addWord(self, word: str) -> None:
        
        node = self.root
        
        for c in word:            
            if c in node.children:
                node = node.children[c]                
            else:
                node.children[c] = TrieNode()
                node = node.children[c]
        
        node.is_word = True
    
                
    def search(self, word: str) -> bool:
        if not word:
            return False
        
        return self.search_helper(self.root, word, 0)

    def search_helper(self, node, word, index):
        if not node:
            return False
        
        if index >= len(word):
            return node.is_word
        
        char = word[index]
        
        if char != '.':
        
            return self.search_helper(node.children.get(char), word, index + 1)
                    
        else:
            for child in node.children:
                if self.search_helper(node.children[child], word, index + 1):
                    return True

        return False
    

# Your WordDictionary object will be instantiated and called as such:
# obj = WordDictionary()
# obj.addWord(word)
# param_2 = obj.search(word)
  • Time Complexity: O(N).
  • Space Complexity: O(N).

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